01. That sex ratio will be favored which maximizes the number of descendants an individual will have and hence the number of gene copies transmitted.
02. (This is) A desire to throw over reality a light that never was might give away abruptly to the desire on the part of what we might consider a novelist-scientist to record exactly and concretely the structure and texture of a flower.
03. Hardy’s weakness derived from his apparent inability to control the comings and goings of these divergent impulses and from his unwillingness to cultivate and sustain the energetic and risky ones.
4. In the American economy, the concept of private property embraces not only the ownership of productive resources but also certain rights, including the right to determine the price of a product or to make a free contract with another private individual.
[参考译文] 在美国经济中，私有财产的概念不仅包含对生产资源的所有权，也指其他一些特定的权利，如确定一个产品价格和与另一个私人个体(经济单位) 自由签定合同的权利。
5. At the same time these computers record which hours are busiest and which employers are the most efficient, allowing personnel and staffing assignments to be made accordingly. And they also identify preferred customers for promotional campaigns.
6. Numerous other commercial enterprises, from theaters to magazine publishers, from gas and electric utilities to milk processors, bring better and more efficient services to consumers through the use of computers.
7. Exceptional children are different in some significant way from others of the same age For these children to develop to their full adult potential, their education must be adapted to those differences.
8. The great interest in exceptional children shown in public education over the past three decades indicates the strong feeling in our society that all citizens, whatever their special conditions, deserve the opportunity to fully develop their capabilities.
9. It serves directly to assist a rapid distribution of goods at reasonable price, thereby establishing a firm home market and so making it possible to provide for export at competitive prices.
10. Apart from the fact that twenty-seven acts of Parliament govern the terms of advertising, no regular advertiser dare promote a product that fails to live up to the promise of his advertisements.
11. If its message were confined merely to information and that in itself would be difficult if not impossible to achieve, for even a detail such as the choice of the color of a shirt is subtly persuasive-advertising wound be so boring that no one wound pay any attention.
[参考译文] 如果其信息只被局限于告知一一就广告而言，如果这不是完全不可能达到的，也是非常难做的，因为即便是一个诸如衬衫的颜色的选择这样的细节都会具有微妙的说服意味，那么广告就会如此地乏味以至于没有人 会关注它。
12. The workers who gets a promotion, the student whose grades improve, the foreigner who learns a new language-all these are examples of people who have measurable results to show for there efforts.
13. As families move away from their stable community, their friends of many years, their extended family relationships, the informal flow of information is cut off, and with it the confidence that information will be available when needed and will be trustworthy and reliable.
14. The individual now has more information available than any generation, and the task of finding that one piece of information relevant to his or her specific problem is complicated, time–consuming, and sometimes even overwhelming.
[参考译文] 现在每个人能够得到的信息比任何时代的人都多，而找到与他/她的特定问题相关的那一点信息的任务不仅复杂、耗时，有时甚至令人难以招架 。
15. Expertise can be shared world wide through teleconferencing, and problems in dispute can be settled without the participants leaving their homes and/or jobs to travel to a distant conference site.
16. The current passion for making children compete against their classmates or against the clock produces a two-layer system, in which competitive A-types seem in some way better than their B type fellows.
17. While talking to you, your could-be employer is deciding whether your education, your experience, and other qualifications will pay him to employ you and your “wares” and abilities must be displayed in an orderly and reasonably connected manner.
18. The Corporation will survive as a publicly funded broadcasting organization, at least for the time being, but its role, its size and its programs are now the subject of a nation wide debate in Britain.
19. The debate was launched by the Government, which invited anyone with an opinion of the BBC–including ordinary listeners and viewer to say what was good or bad about the Corporation, and even whether they thought it was worth keeping.
20. The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large profess signal element and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders.
[参考译文] 这种变化通过引入许多的专业因素从而适应了这个新时代的技术要求，并且它(这种变化)防止了效率的降低。这种效率的降低在精力充沛的 创业者之后的第二代和第三代人(领导公司)的时候，经常会毁掉那些 家族公司的财富。
21. Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class, an element in national life representing irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of the landowners: and almost equally detached from the responsible management of business.
[参考译文] 这样巨大而非个人的对资金和产业的操纵极大地增加了股东的数量和他们作为一个阶级的重要性，这是国家生活中代表不负责任的财富的一个因素，这种财富不但远离了土地和土地拥有者的责任，而且几乎同样与 公司的负责任的管理毫无关系。
22. Towns like Bournemouth and Eastbourne sprang up to house large “comfortable” classes who had retired on their incomes, and who had no relation to the rest of the community except that of drawing dividends and occasionally attending a shareholders” meeting to dictate their orders to the management.
23. The “shareholders” as such had no knowledge of the lives, thoughts or needs of the workmen employed by the company in which he held shares, and his influence on the relations of capital and labor was not good.
24. The paid manager acting for the company was in more direct relation with the men and their demands, but even he had seldom that familiar personal knowledge of the workmen which the employer had often had under the more patriarchal system of the old family business now passing away.
25. Among the many shaping factors, I would single out the country”s excellent elementary schools: a labor force that welcomed the new technology; the practice of giving premiums to inventors; and above all the American genius for nonverbal, “spatial” thinking about things technological.
26. As Eugene Ferguson has pointed out, “A technologist thinks about objects that can not be reduced to unambiguous verbal descriptions: they are dealt with in his mind by a visual, nonverbal process…The designer and the inventor.., are able to assemble and manipulate in their minds devices that as yet do not exist”.
[参考译文] 正如尤金·弗格森所指出的那样：”一个技术专家思考那些不能被简化成 能被清楚的语言描述的东西。这些东西在他的思维中是通过一种视觉的、非语言表述的过程宋处理的……设计者和发明者……能够在他们的脑中装配并操作那些还不存在的装置。”
27. The role those anthropologists ascribe to evolution is not of dictating the details of human behavior but one of imposing constraints-ways of feeling，thinking，and acting that “come naturally” in archetypal situations in any culture.
28. Which of the following most probably provides an appropriate analogy from human morphology for the “details” versus “constraints” distinction made in the passage in relation to human behavior?
29. A low number of algal cells in the presence of a high number of grazers suggested，but did not prove， that the grazers had removed most of the algae.
30. Perhaps the fact many of these first studies considered only algae of a size that could be collected in a net (net phytoplankton), a practice that overlooked the smaller phytoplankton (nannoplankton) that we now know grazers are most likely to feed on , led to a de-emphasis of the role of grazers in subsequent research.