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地图题原来难在这儿!那么多替换表达,全是坑~

  每次碰到地图题,如果在听力,大概率集体阵亡,雅思运营官,金币入账。如果在写作,则常常是考试爽一时,拿到分数哭一宿。

  明明该写的方位、变化,都写到了,最多可能是 there be 句式有点多,内容有点流水账,怎么分数却这么“低调”呢?

  细想之下,才发现,原来,看似平淡的文章里,既没有加分表达,还有很多“扣分必备要素”,地图题实在算得上小作文的坑王之王了。

  之前的推送有梳理过地图题的加分表达和句式,详见链接:梳理完这一种类型的考法,小作文就什么都不怕了~

  而今天则是要梳理地图题的最容易失分的地方,那些容易弄错、弄混的表达和句式。


  be located, be situated, lie in

  locate、situate  主动的时候,表达去定位某个东西,主语一般是人,或者一些团体机构等。地图题,应该是被动 be located/ situated 才对。

  The school is situated near the park.

  The restaurant is located near the cathedral.

  lie 表达的坐落于,用主动的方式去写:

  The town lies in a small wooded valley.

  The river lies 30 km to the south.

  change vs be changed

  在地图题的 overview 或者主体段段首总起的时候,常常会说 xx 有很大的变化,然后再细致去描述。那么,下面哪个句子是对的?

  The museum has changed a lot.

  The museum has been changed a lot.

  两个句子语法上都是对的,推荐写第一个,客观陈述变化了。第二个有被改变了的意思,不知道也不用强调出是谁去改变的。

  或者,我们也可以替换为下面的方式去描述这种“综述”的内容:

  … has undergone dramatic changes …

  … obvious changes have been recorded/ can be seen in …

  (是否用现在完成时,根据图的时间决定,也可能是过去或者是将来完成时。)

  near/ near to/ close to/ in close proximity/ next to/ beside

  上面几个词语都是表达附近的意思。从小作文地图题的角度,我们表达 A 在 B 附近,我们应该说:

  Both supermarket sites are close to the railway.

  Both supermarket sites are near to the railway.

  Both supermarket sites are near the railway.

  Both supermarket sites are next to the railway.

  Both supermarket sites are in close proximity to the railway.

  如果表达一个地点的补充“在 A 的附近”,前或后还有完整的主句,我们正确的使用方法是:

  The moshav is also located near to Hamasrek Nature Reserve.

  The moshav is also located near Hamasrek Nature Reserve.

  The moshav is also located beside Hamasrek Nature Reserve.

  The moshav is also located next to Hamasrek Nature Reserve.

  The moshav is also located close to Hamasrek Nature Reserve.

  The moshav is also located in close proximity to Hamasrek Nature Reserve.

  in front of vs at the front of

  in front of 是表达在某物的外面,而 at the front of 的时候,则是在建筑内部的。比如下面的句子,是错误的:

  The reception is in front of the main building.

  Reception 接待处应该是在建筑内部的。


  around vs surround vs surrounding

  三个词最本质的区别是,around 是介词、副词surround 是动词,而 surrounding 是形容词。所以,根据你要去描述的场景,去选择合适的词汇吧:

  around 地点状语,补充主句的位置:

  The Romans built a defensive wall around the city.

  a prosperous suburb built around a new mosque.

  surround 表达“环绕、包围”这个动词的意思:

  A county usually consists of several towns and the rural areas which surround them.

  The house is surrounded by trees, so it’s not overlooked at all .

  形容词,表达“周边的”去修饰别的词:Parents in the surrounding towns have been targeted.

  在下面的场景中,几个方式都是正确的:

  the area around it has been designated as a swimming area.

  the area which surrounded it has been designated as a swimming area.

  the area surrounding it has been designated as a swimming area.

  connect/ link/ lead to/ join

  在地图的场景中,connect、link 一般作及物动词去使用。前者搭配 with,后者搭配 to。如果用路、桥等作主语,则可直接主动去使用。

  The railway link connects Felixstowe with Fishguard.

  The two lakes are connected by a narrow canal.

  A long bridge links Venice and the mainland.

  The pipe must be linked to the cold water supply.

  lead to 表示通向,在地图中一般和路搭配,主动去使用

  The new road leading to the terminal will also be specially designed.

  join 也有连通的意思,根据例句,推荐大家用在两个完全独立分开的地方连通。

  The island is joined to the mainland by a causeway.

  Two islands were joined by the new bridge.

  combine vs merge

  combine/ merge 都是合并到了一起,成为整体了。虽然都可以及物也可以不及物,相对而言,combine 被动更多,merge 主动更多。

  Two heritage buildings are combined and repurposed as a luxury apartment complex.

  The villages have grown and merged together over the years.

  After a while the narrow trail merges with a wider path.

  to the east of vs in the east

  下面两个句子,你觉得谁是对的?

  The dance studios are located to the east of the sports hall.

  The dance studios are located in the east of the sports hall.

  当然,这要看具体情况。to 强调两者是分开的。in 当然就是在后面这个区域的里面了。方位的常见介词 at/ in/ on 的场景示范:

  和部分固定搭配:

  at the two sides of vs on either side of

  下面这个句子,是错误的:

  In 2007, there were outdoor courts at the two sides of the main building.

  一方面,任何建筑,不止两个面,另一方面,at 也是错误的介词。应该用:In 2007, there were outdoor courts on either side of the main building.

 

  in the middle of vs in the center of

  都表示在中间、中心的意思。可以互相替换。如果是两者之间,记得用 between and。

  The hotel is right in the centre of the village.

  A low table with cushions on either side occupied the middle of the room.

  The bookshop is between the post office and the supermarket .

  divide vs separate

  两个词的意思上差不多:

  介词搭配上,divide 主要是 into;而 separate 既可以是 into 也可以是 from。

  以小作文地图题来讲,大概率都是用他们的被动形式,某个东西 be separated/ divided into … parts 被分为几个部分了。

  there be

  最后说一个比较“常规”的错误。因为 there be 句式自带 be 动词,所以后面如果再出现任何动词,都需要“特殊处理”一下,比如:

  (错误)There are roads and footpaths connect the various parts of the islands.

  (正确)There are roads and footpaths which connect the various parts of the islands.

  (正确)There are roads and footpaths connecting the various parts of the islands.

 

  梳理完了地图题专属的若干小错误,感觉很多细节的东西,如果没有专门去梳理,真的有太多的坑,不知不觉就跳进去了。

  而避免入坑的方法,除了不断的思考,遇到任何不确定的内容,都及时修正之外,也可以多多翻看“以鹅”的往期推送,把小问号都变成大句号:

  带有介词的定语从句(如 by which/ after which)

  时间作主语的句子(如 the recent years witness)

  独立主格结构的使用场景和方法

  分词(-ing 和 -ed)的区别

  如何避免一个句子有两个动词

  到底是 compared with,还是 comparing with

  three times more than 到底是三倍还是四倍

  as opposed to 句式示范


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  • 地图题原来难在这儿!那么多替换表达,全是坑~
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  • 地图题原来难在这儿!那么多替换表达,全是坑~
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